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地膜覆盖与肥料种类对寒地水稻产量和品质的影响
付旭坤1,刘宝龙1,高大鹏1,刘月月1,关政闻1,张兴方2,郭丽颖1,邵玺文1,耿艳秋1*
0
(1.吉林农业大学 农学院, 长春 130118;2.长春市九台区农业技术推广中心, 长春130500)
摘要:
为探究地膜覆盖与肥料种类对寒地水稻产量与稻米品质形成产生的效应,以‘吉农大738’和‘吉粳525’为试材,在每个品种下均设置2种栽培模式:地膜覆盖(M)和露地(NM);2种肥料处理:有机肥(F0)和化肥(F1),于2020年在吉林省长春市九台区进行大田试验,测定水稻的产量、收获指数和品质等指标。结果表明:1)在有机肥条件下,2个品种覆膜处理较露地处理增产1.39%~7.40%;化肥条件下增产2.98%~3.30%。在露地条件下,化肥处理较有机肥处理增产23.19%~26.44%;在覆膜条件下,增产21.62%~25.13%。2)地膜覆盖和化肥的施用均提高了拔节期至成熟期的干物质积累量。地膜覆盖处理的收获指数较露地处理提高2.45%~8.17%;有机肥处理的收获指数较化肥处理提高3.06%~6.66%。3)地膜覆盖处理的糙米率、精米率和蛋白质含量较露地处理分别提高1.07%~2.84%、1.11%~1.74%和9.34%~20.81%,改善了稻米的加工品质和营养品质;地膜覆盖处理的热浆黏度和消减值较露地处理分别降低0.20%~5.62%和2.27%~12.54%,改善了RVA谱特征值。有机肥处理的蛋白质含量、食味值、峰值黏度和崩解值较化肥处理分别提高9.34%~26.38%、1.27%~4.70%、1.73%~14.74%和1.96%~32.02%,改善了营养品质、食味品质和RVA谱特征值;有机肥处理的垩白粒率和垩白度较化肥处理分别降低5.85%~58.94%和7.04%~71.65%,改善了外观品质。综上,地膜覆盖(M)配合施用化肥(F1)处理增产效果最佳,较其他处理增产2.98%~30.62%,且糙米率和精米率最高;地膜覆盖(M)配合施有机肥(F0)处理的食味品质、外观品质、营养品质和RVA谱特征值较其他处理改善效果最佳。
关键词:  地膜覆盖  肥料  寒地水稻  产量  稻米品质
DOI:10.11841/j.issn.1007-4333.2022.10.08
投稿时间:2021-11-08
基金项目:吉林省科技发展计划(20200402004NC);寒地粮食作物种质创新与生理生态教育部重点实验室项目(CXSTOP2021003)
Effects of plastic film mulching and fertilizer type on the yield and quality of rice in cold regions
FU Xukun1,LIU Baolong1,GAO Dapeng1,LIU Yueyue1,GUAN Zhengwen1,ZHANG Xingfang2,GUO Liying1,SHAO Xiwen1,GENG Yanqiu1*
(1.College of Agronomy, Jilin Agricultural university, Changchun 130118, China;2.Changchun Jiutai District Agriculture Technology Popularizing Center, Changchun 130500, China)
Abstract:
In order to explore the effects of plastic film mulching and fertilizer type on the yield and quality of rice, rice cultivars ‘Jinongda 738' and ‘Jijing 525' were used as experimental materials, and two types of fertilizers, organic fertilizer(F0)and chemical fertilizer(F1), were set under two cultivation modes of plastic film mulching(M)and open field(NM). Field experiment was conducted in Jiutai District, Changchun City, Jilin Province in 2020 to determine the rice yield. The results showed that: 1)Compared with open field treatment, the yield of the two varieties increased by 1. 39%-7. 40% under organic fertilizer and 2. 98%-3. 30% under chemical fertilizer. Compared with organic fertilizer treatment, the yield of chemical fertilizer treatment increased by 23. 19%-26. 44% in open field and 21. 62%-25. 13% in plastic film mulching field. 2)The application of plastic film mulching and chemical fertilizer increased the dry matter accumulation from jointing stage to maturity stage. The harvest index of plastic film mulching treatment increased by 2. 45%-8. 17% compared with that of open field treatment. The harvest index of organic fertilizer treatment increased by 3. 06%-6. 66% compared with that of chemical fertilizer treatment. 3)Compared with the open field treatment, the rate of brown rice, the rate of milled rice and the content of protein in plastic film mulching treatment increased by 1. 07%-2. 84%, 1. 11%-1. 74% and 9. 34%-20. 81% respectively, which improved the processing quality and nutritional quality of rice. Compared with the open field treatment, the hot paste viscosity and reduction value of plastic film mulching treatment decreased by 0. 20%-5. 62% and 2. 27%-12. 54% respectively, and the RVA spectrum characteristic value was improved. Compared with chemical fertilizer treatment, the protein content, taste value, peak viscosity and disintegration value of organic fertilizer treatment increased by 9. 34%-26. 38%, 1. 27%-4. 70%, 1. 73%-14. 74% and 1. 96%-32. 02% respectively, which improved the nutritional quality, taste quality and RVA spectrum characteristic value. Compared with chemical fertilizer treatment, the chalkiness rate and chalkiness of organic fertilizer treatment decreased by 5. 85%-58. 94% and 7. 04%-71. 65% respectively, which improved the appearance quality. To sum up, plastic film mulching(M)combined with chemical fertilizer(F1)displayed the best yield increasing effect, which was 2. 98%-30. 62% higher than other treatments, and the brown rice rate and milled rice rate are the highest. Compared with other treatments, plastic film mulching(M)combined with organic fertilizer(F0)had the best improvement effect on food quality, appearance quality, nutritional quality and RVA spectrum characteristic value.
Key words:  plastic film mulching  fertilizer  cold rice  yield  rice quality