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灌水定额和施钾量对膜下滴灌马铃薯产量及水肥利用效率的影响
李淼1,王凤新1*,赵健宇1,李斌2,费娜2,房祥国3
0
(1.中国农业大学 水利与土木工程学院, 北京 100083;2.日照市岚山区农业农村局, 山东 日照, 276807;3.日照市岚山区农业技术服务中心, 山东 日照, 276827)
摘要:
研究膜下滴灌条件下马铃薯适宜的灌溉制度及施钾方案。于2021年03—06月在山东省日照市进行灌水定额和施钾量对膜下滴灌马铃薯产量及水肥利用效率影响的试验,设置3个灌水定额W1(5 mm)、W2(10 mm)、W3(块茎膨大期前5 mm,膨大期后20 mm)和4个施钾(K2O)水平K1(180 kg/hm2)、K2(260 kg/hm2)、K3(340 kg/hm2)、K4(420 kg/hm2),共12个处理,每个处理3个重复。结果表明:1)随着灌水定额的增大,耗水量增加,W3处理比W1和W2显著增加23.66%和16.05%。同一灌水定额下,增施钾肥有增加耗水量的趋势(除W3K2外)。2)生育期内马铃薯钾素累积量呈“S”型变化,块茎膨大期前滴灌灌水定额小于10 mm、适量增施钾肥均有利于马铃薯钾素累积。在K4施钾量下,W3处理马铃薯钾素累积最多,与W1和W2相比,钾素利用效率提高17.74%和19.48%,钾素吸收效率没有显著差异,均接近40%。3)同一灌水定额下,马铃薯产量、水分利用效率均在K3处理下获得最大值,K3处理平均产量和水分利用效率分别为32 983.2 kg/hm2和110.3 kg/(hm2·mm),比K1、K2、K4处理分别提高9.53%、5.88%、13.16%和5.91%、3.15%、15.90%。4)同一施钾量下,马铃薯产量和钾肥偏生产力均在W3处理下达到最大值(除W1K1外),W3处理下平均产量和钾肥偏生产力分别为32 294.0和118.1 kg/kg,比W1和W2处理分别提高5.84%、4.02%和8.58%、8.70%。综合考虑马铃薯产量和水肥利用效率,在本试验条件下,马铃薯较为适宜的灌水定额为块茎膨大期前5 mm,膨大期后20 mm,钾肥施用量为340 kg/hm2
关键词:  灌水定额  施钾量  马铃薯  产量  水肥利用效率
DOI:10.11841/j.issn.1007-4333.2022.10.09
投稿时间:2022-01-24
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51579240)
Effects of irrigation quota and potassium application rate on the growth, yield and water and fertilizer use efficiency of potato under drip irrigation and plastic film mulching
LI Miao1,WANG Fengxin1*,ZHAO Jianyu1,LI Bin2,FEI Na2,FANG Xiangguo3
(1.College of Hydraulic and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China;2.Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of Lanshan Distirct, Rizhao City, Rizhao 276807, China;3.Agricultural Technical Service Center of Lanshan District, Rizhao City, Rizhao 276827, China)
Abstract:
Field experiment to explore the effects of irrigation quota and potassium rate on growth, yield and water and fertilizer use efficiency of potato under drip irrigation and plastic film mulching was conducted. Three irrigation quotas, W1(5 mm), W2(10 mm)and W3(5 mm before tuber bulking, 20 mm after tuber bulking), and four potassium(K2O)rates, K1(180 kg/hm2), K2(260 kg/hm2), K3(340 kg/hm2)and K4(420 kg/hm2)were designed to further improve the use efficiency of water and potassium for drip-irrigated potato under plastic film mulching in Rizhao, Shandong from March to June in 2021. The results suggested that: Potato ET increased with the increase of the irrigation quota, and it was significantly increased by 23. 66% and 16. 05% in W3 treatment compared to those of W1 and W2 treatments. Under the same irrigation quota, increasing potassium application tended to increase ET(except in W3K2 combination). During the whole growth period, the potassium accumulation of potato showed an “S” shape. Irrigation quota less than 10 mm before tuber bulking stage and increase of potassium fertilizer application both led to more potato potassium accumulation. With the same potassium application in K4 treatment, the potato under W3 treatment accumulated the most potassium and the potassium utilization efficiency increased by 17. 74% and 19. 48% compared to those of W1 and W2 treatments. However, the potassium absorption efficiency showed no significant difference under K4 treatment among the three irrigation levels, all close to 40%. Under the same irrigation quota, potato yield and water use efficiency were the highest under K3 treatment. The average yield and water use efficiency of K3 treatment were 32 983. 2 kg/hm2 and 110. 3 kg/(hm2·mm), respectively, which were 9. 53%, 5. 88%, 13. 16% and 5. 91%, 3. 15% and 15. 90% higher than those of K1, K2 and K4 treatments, respectively. Under the same potassium rate, potato yield and PEPK reached the maximum under W3 treatment(except W1K1 treatment). The average tuber yield and PEPK under W3 treatment were 32 294. 0 kg/hm2 and 118. 1 kg/kg, respectively, which were 5. 84%, 4. 02% and 8. 58% and 8. 70% higher than those of W1 and W2 treatments, respectively. In conclusion, comprehensively considering potato yield and water and fertilizer use efficiency, the suitable irrigation quota for potato is 5 mm before tuber bulking, 20 mm after tuber bulking and the optimal potassium rate is 340 kg/hm2.
Key words:  irrigation quota  potassium rate  potato  yield  water and fertilizer use efficiency