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山西省典型粮食作物水分生态适应性研究
职微微1,2,李平春1,2,李梦娜1,2,祁云蛟1,2,陈阜1,2,雷永登1,2*
0
(1.中国农业大学 农学院, 北京 100193;2.农业农村部农作制度重点实验室, 北京 100193)
摘要:
为探究山西省典型粮食作物水分供需及水分生态适应性特征,基于1980—2018年山西省28个国家气象站点的逐日气象资料,采用Penman-Monteith公式计算玉米、谷子和马铃薯3种粮食作物生育期内的水分供需情况,并在此基础上定量分析作物的水分亏缺及水分生态适应性特征。结果表明:1)3种作物的需水量与自然降水有较好的耦合度,但自然降水仍无法满足作物生长发育的需求,尤其是马铃薯,灌溉需水量高达248.96 mm,且在全省大部分地区高于玉米和谷子;2)晋南和晋东南地区马铃薯的水分亏缺指数最高,分别为0.85和0.78,其他地区表现为玉米最高,为0.76,谷子最低,为0.75;3)作物水分生态适应性指数由高到低表现为谷子(1.22)>玉米(1.07)>马铃薯(0.77)。谷子的灌溉需水量和水分亏缺指数最小且水分生态适应性最高,从水资源可持续利用角度分析,山西省应适当减少玉米的种植范围,适当增加谷子的播种面积,同时应控制严重缺水地区马铃薯的种植规模。
关键词:  粮食作物  水分供需  水分亏缺指数  水分生态适应性
DOI:10.11841/j.issn.1007-4333.2022.10.07
投稿时间:2021-10-08
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2021YFD1901103);国家自然科学基金(72061147001, 31801315);国家社科基金(18ZDA074)
Study on water ecological adaptability of typical grain crops in Shanxi Province
ZHI Weiwei1,2,LI Pingchun1,2,LI Mengna1,2,QI Yunjiao1,2,CHEN Fu1,2,LEI Yongdeng1,2*
(1.College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China;2.Key Laboratory of Farming System of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100193, China)
Abstract:
In order to explore the characteristics of water supply and demand and water ecological adaptability of typical grain crops in Shanxi Province, based on the daily meteorological data of 28 national meteorological stations in Shanxi Province from 1980 to 2018, Penman-Monteith formula was used to calculate the water supply and demand of three grain crops: maize, millet and potato. On this basis, the characteristics of crop water deficit and water ecological adaptability were analyzed quantitatively. The results showed that: 1)The water demand of the three crops had a good coupling degree with the natural precipitation, but the natural precipitation still could not meet the needs of crop growth and development, especially for potato, the irrigation water demand was as high as 248. 96 mm, which was higher than that of maize and millet in most parts of the province; 2)The water deficit index of potato was the highest in southern and southeast Shanxi, which were 0. 85 and 0. 78, respectively. In other areas, the water deficit index of maize was the highest, 0. 76, and that of millet was the lowest, 0. 75; 3)The overall performance of crop water ecological adaptability index was millet(1. 22)> maize(1. 07)> potato(0. 77). The irrigation water demand and water deficit index of millet were the smallest and the water ecological adaptability was the highest. From the perspective of sustainable utilization of water resources, Shanxi Province should appropriately reduce the planting range of maize, appropriately increase the sowing area of millet, and control the planting scale of potato in areas with serious water shortage.
Key words:  grain crops  water supply and demand  water deficit index  water ecological adaptability