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微喷灌下不同氮肥基追比对冬小麦产量和品质的影响
姚春生,卢崇靖,孙婉,刘洋,张震,王志敏,张英华
0
(中国农业大学 农学院, 北京 100193)
摘要:
为探究微喷水肥一体化条件下氮肥基追比对不同筋型冬小麦产量和品质的影响,2018—2020年以强筋品种‘藁优2018’和中筋品种‘济麦22’为材料,设置灌水定额为1 200 m3/hm2,施氮总量为210 kg/hm2,氮肥基追比为3∶7(B1)、5∶5(B2)和7∶3(B3),于拔节期、孕穗期、开花期和灌浆中期采用微喷水肥一体化进行等量追肥和灌水,测定2个品种的产量、品质和氮素吸收利用的特征指标。结果表明:1)3个氮肥基追比处理中,B1处理显著降低冬小麦穗数,B3处理显著降低千粒重,B2处理则在稳定穗数的基础上显著提高了千粒重,因而产量最高;2)B1处理显著提高籽粒湿面筋含量、蛋白质含量和沉降值,显著延长了面团稳定时间,进而提高了加工品质;3)B2处理显著增加花后氮素吸收对籽粒氮的贡献率,显著提高氮素收获指数和氮肥偏生产力。综上所述,在本试验微喷水肥一体化条件下,施氮量为210 kg/hm2、氮肥基追比例为5∶5可提高冬小麦花后干物质积累,提升强筋冬小麦籽粒产量和品质。
关键词:  微喷灌  基追比  冬小麦  产量  品质
DOI:10.11841/j.issn.1007-4333.2022.10.05
投稿时间:2021-10-13
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31871563);财政部和农业农村部国家现代农业产业技术体系(CARS-03)
Effects of different basal and topdressing ratios of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and quality of winter wheat under micro-sprinkling irrigation
YAO Chunsheng,LU Chongjing,SUN Wan,LIU Yang,ZHANG Zhen,WANG Zhimin,ZHANG Yinghua
(College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China)
Abstract:
To explore the effects of nitrogen base dressing ratio on the yield and quality of winter wheat varieties with different gluten types under the condition of integrated micro-water spraying and fertilizer, the irrigation quota of 1 200 m3/hm2 and the total nitrogen application amount of 210 kg/hm2 were set with the strong gluten variety ‘Gaoyou 2018' and medium gluten variety ‘Jimai 22' as materials from 2018 to 2020. Nitrogen base dressing ratios were 3∶7(B1), 5∶5(B2)and 7∶3(B3)and at jointing stage, booting stage, anthesis stage and mid-filling stage, respectively. The yield, quality and nitrogen uptake and utilization characteristics of the two cultivars were determined. The results showed as follows: 1)Under the three basal ratio treatments, B1 significantly reduced the spike number of winter wheat, B3 significantly reduced the 1 000-grain weight, B2 significantly increased the 1 000-grain weight on the basis of stable spike number, so the yield was the highest; 2)B1 treatment significantly increased the wet gluten content, protein content and settling value of grains, prolonged the dough stability time, and improved the processing quality; 3)B2 treatment significantly increase the contribution rate of N uptake to grain N, and improve N harvest index and partial nitrogen productivity. In conclusion, under the integrated condition of micro-water spraying fertilizer in this experiment, the nitrogen application rate of 210 kg/hm2 and the ratio of base to top dressing of 5∶5 for N fertilizer is a relatively coordinated nitrogen management method for yield and quality, and the improvement of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen uptake after anthesis is an important way to synchronically improve grain yield and quality of strong wheat.
Key words:  micro-sprinkling irrigation  ratio of base and topdressing  winter wheat  yield  quality