引用本文
  •    [点击复制]
  •    [点击复制]
【打印本页】 【下载PDF全文】 查看/发表评论下载PDF阅读器关闭

←前一篇|后一篇→

过刊浏览    高级检索

本文已被:浏览 139次   下载 97 本文二维码信息
码上扫一扫!
土壤盐渍化对玉米田杂草群落多样性和玉米产量的影响
魏天娇1,关法春1*,梁正伟2*,解娇1,张永锋1,黄立华2,王明明2,陆冠茹2
0
(1.吉林省农业科学院 农村能源与生态研究所, 长春 130033;2.中国科学院 东北地理与农业生态研究所, 长春 130102)
摘要:
为探究不同土壤盐渍化水平对杂草群落多样性和玉米产量的影响,在松嫩平原西部选取3个不同盐渍化水平的采样点,T1(低盐渍化),T2(中盐渍化)和T3(高盐渍化)。采用“样方法”分析玉米灌浆期不同土壤盐渍化条件下杂草群落组成,并调查蜡熟期的玉米产量构成因素。结果表明:杂草群落总密度、总盖度和总地上生物量随土壤盐渍化程度的加重而逐渐增加,其中高盐渍化(T3)条件下的最高,总密度为41.51株/m2,总盖度为35.11%及总地上生物量为227.07 g/m2。不同盐渍化水平的土壤杂草群落中共有的杂草物种数越多,其杂草群落的相似性系数越高。其中,中盐渍化(T2)和高盐渍化(T3)条件下的杂草群落之间的相似性系数最大,为0.82。杂草群落的Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Simpson多样性指数和Pielou均匀度指数与土壤盐渍化水平均呈不显著正相关,这3个指数随着土壤盐渍化程度的加重而增加。然而,群落Margalef丰富度指数与土壤盐渍化水平呈不显著负相关,该指数随土壤盐渍化程度的加重而降低。此外,同低盐渍化(T1)相比,高盐渍化(T3)条件下的玉米产量构成因素中的穗长、行粒数和穗粒重都降低,降低幅度分别为23%,23%和22%。杂草群落多样性指数、均匀度指数和地上生物量均会导致玉米产量构成因素中的穗长、行粒数和穗粒重降低,但不显著,然而,杂草群落丰富度指数与玉米产量构成因素中的穗长、行粒数和穗粒重均呈正相关,但不显著。综上,在一定的土壤EC范围内,随着土壤盐渍化程度的加重,植被群落种类增加,多样性增加,丰富度降低,地上生物量增加,玉米产量性状指标降低,但均未达显著水平。
关键词:  土壤盐渍化  玉米田杂草  群落多样性  玉米产量
DOI:10.11841/j.issn.1007-4333.2022.10.04
投稿时间:2021-10-15
基金项目:吉林省农业科技创新工程博士后基金(C12043207);吉林省农业科技创新工程(CXGC2021ZY036)
Effects of soil salinization on weed community diversity in maize field and maize yield
WEI Tianjiao1,GUAN Fachun1*,LIANG Zhengwei2*,XIE Jiao1,ZHANG Yongfeng1,HUANG Lihua2,WANG Mingming2,LU Guanru2
(1.Institute of Rural Energy and Ecology, Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun 130033, China;2.Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102, China)
Abstract:
In order to investigate the effects of different soil salinization levels on the weed community diversity in maize field and maize yield, three sampling sites with different salinization levels(T1, low salinization level; T2, medium salinization level; T3, high salinization level)in western Songnen Plain were selected. The composition of weed community under different soil salinization levels during filling stage of maize was studied by using sample method, and the yield component factors during waxy maturity stage of maize were investigated. The results showed that: The total density, total coverage and total aboveground biomass of weed communities increased gradually with the aggravation of soil salinization. The highest total density was 41. 51 plant/m2, the total coverage was 35. 11% and the total aboveground biomass was 227. 07 g/m2 under high salinization level(T3). The similarity coefficient of weed community was higher when the number of common weed species increased under different salinization levels. The similarity coefficient between weed community under medium salinization level(T2)and high salinization level(T3)was the largest, which was 0. 82. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index, the Simpson diversity index and the Pielou evenness index of weed community were no significant positively correlated with soil salinization, and increased with the aggravation of soil salinization. However, there was no significant negative correlation between the Margalef richness index of weed community and soil salinization, and it decreased with the aggravation of soil salinization. In addition, compared with low salinization level(T1), the ear length, number of kernel per row and grain weight per ear were all decreased by 23%, 23% and 22%, under high salinization level(T3). The diversity index, evenness index and biomass of weed community had no significant negative correlation effect on the ear length, number of kernel per and grain weight per ear. However, there was no significant positive correlation between the richness index of weed community and ear length, the number of kernel per and grain weight per ear. In conclusion, within a certain range of soil EC value variation, with the aggravation of soil salinization, the species and diversity of vegetation community increased, the richness decreased, the aboveground biomass increased, and the yield and traits of maize decreased, but none of them were significant.
Key words:  soil salinization  weeds in maize field  community diversity  maize yield