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微生物菌剂对设施辣椒秸秆原位堆肥土壤理化性质及细菌群落的影响
李雪菲1,2,靳拓3,张凯4,严昌荣1,2,丁超武5,刘勤1,2*
0
(1.中国农业科学院 农业环境与可持续发展研究所, 北京 100081;2.农业农村部农膜污染防控重点实验室, 北京 100081;3.农业农村部农业生态与资源保护总站, 北京 100125;4.山东省农业生态与资源保护总站, 济南 250131;5.山东成聚农业科技有限公司, 潍坊 262700)
摘要:
为明确微生物菌剂对设施废弃秸秆参与原位堆肥的影响,以辣椒秸秆为研究对象,利用实验室常规化学分析方法,测定堆肥理化性质,并通过 16 s rDNA 高通量测序技术分析堆肥过程细菌群落。结果表明:外源微生物菌剂可显著提高堆肥期间土壤温度,提高电导率值,促进总氮的固定,有效减少堆肥中期氮素损失。不同发酵时期细菌优势菌种不同,变形菌门(Proteobacteria)、厚壁菌门(Firmicutes)、酸杆菌门(Acidobacteria)、绿弯菌门(Chloroflexi)、芽单胞菌门(Gemmatimonadetes)、拟杆菌门(Bacteroidetes)、放线菌门(Actinobacteria)和异常球菌-栖热菌门(Deinococcus-Thermus)是辣椒秸秆原位堆肥过程在门水平优势细菌。克雷伯氏菌属(Klebsiella),芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus),不动杆菌属(Acinetobacter)和假单孢菌属(Pseudomonas)是属水平优势细菌。微生物菌剂对细菌群落结构的影响主要体现在堆肥升温期和降温期。添加300 kg/hm2微生物菌剂处理堆肥最高温度比对照提高1.95 ℃,和堆肥前相比,电导率提高了1.37 ms/cm,总氮提高了24.1%,优势菌群变形菌和厚壁门在所有组内变化最显著。综上,300 kg/hm2微生物菌剂为辣椒秸秆原位堆肥最适添加量,研究结果为茄果类秸秆还田堆肥技术提供依据。
关键词:  设施辣椒秸秆  微生物菌剂  原位堆肥  细菌群落
DOI:10.11841/j.issn.1007-4333.2022.10.03
投稿时间:2022-03-01
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2021YFD1700704)
Effects of microbial agents on the physical and chemical properties and bacterial community of pepper straw in situ composting soil
LI Xuefei1,2,JIN Tuo3,ZHANG Kai4,YAN Changrong1,2,DING Chaowu5,LIU Qin1,2*
(1.Institute of Agricultural Environment and Sustainable Development, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China;2.Key Laboratory of Agricultural Film Pollution Prevention and Control of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100081, China;3.Agricultural Ecology and Resource Protection Station of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100125, China;4.Shandong Agricultural Ecology and Resources Protection Station, Jinan 250131, China;5.Shandong Chengju Agricultural Technology Co., Ltd., Weifang 262700, China)
Abstract:
In order to explore the effect of microbial inoculants on the participation of waste straws in in-situ composting in facilities, pepper straws were taken as the research object. The physical and chemical properties of composting were determined by conventional chemical analysis methods in the laboratory. The changes of bacterial community during the composting process was analyzed by 16 s rDNA high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that the exogenous microbial inoculants significantly increased soil temperature during composting, increased the electrical conductivity(EC)value, promoted the fixation of total nitrogen(TN), and effectively reduced the nitrogen loss in the middle of composting. The dominant bacterial species were various at different fermentation stages. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus were the dominant bacterias at the phylum level in the composting process of pepper straw topsoil. Klebsiella, bacillus, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas were the dominant bacteria at the genus level. The effects of microbial inoculants on bacterial community structure were mainly reflected in the heating and cooling periods of composting. The maximum temperature of compost treated with 300 kg/hm2 microbial inoculum was increased by 1. 95 ℃ compared with the control. EC increased by 1. 37 ms/cm and total nitrogen increased by 24. 1% compared with those before composting. The dominant bacteria Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were found in all groups. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes changed most significantly in all groups. In conclusion, this study found that 300 kg/hm2 microbial inoculum was the optimum addition amount for pepper straw plough layer compost. The research results can provide a scientific basis for the composting technology of returning solanaceous fruit straws to the field.
Key words:  facility pepper straw  microbial inoculant  plough layer compost  bacterial community