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喷施羧甲基纤维素钾对宁夏引黄灌区土壤及其作物的影响
王永杰1,2,颜鑫1,2,王英3,刘根红3,杨世琦1,2*
0
(1.中国农业科学院 农业环境与可持续发展研究所, 北京 100081;2.农业农村部农业环境与气候变化重点开放实验室, 北京 100081;3.宁夏大学 农学院, 银川 750021)
摘要:
为探讨羧甲基纤维素钾(CMC-K)对农田土壤水温环境、土壤养分吸收和作物产量的影响,以宁夏引黄灌区为研究对象,饲草燕麦为供试作物CMC-K为供试材料,采用田间试验,设置CMC-K喷施量0 kg/hm2(CK)、50 kg/hm2(T1)、100 kg/hm2(T2)、200 kg/hm2(T3)和300 kg/hm2(T4)共5个处理,研究其对灌区土壤理化性质、土壤养分以及作物产量的影响。同时,测定不同处理中土壤含水量、温度、电导率、容重和土壤养分等,分析CMC-K对饲草燕麦产量的影响,以及分析CMC-K施用量与土壤理化性质、养分和饲草燕麦产量的相关性。结果表明:土壤含水量随着CMC-K的喷施量增大而增加,在作物拔节期可使土壤含水量提高39.78%~116.80%;CMC-K可以为作物生育期贡献积温48.4~114.4 ℃,能够显著提高土壤温度;喷施CMC-K有助于土壤养分保持,在0~10 cm土层能够提高全钾和速效钾含量28.31%~63.07%和34.72~95.45%,在10~20 cm土层可以提高全钾和速效钾含量12.30%~75.05%和25.65%~125.37%,对有效磷具有固持作用,同时对水解性氮影响明显,可以将水解性氮聚集在上层土壤;对饲草燕麦产量影响显著,提高18.80%~54.11%;CMC-K喷施量与土壤全钾、速效钾含量、土壤含水量以及燕麦产量表现显著正相关,相关系数分别达到0.917、0.982、0.676和0.983。综上所述,在本试验条件下,当CMC-K喷施量为200 kg/hm2时,可以显著提高土壤含水量、温度,影响土壤养分,有助于提升土壤全钾和速效钾含量,固持水解性氮,减少养分的淋溶,考虑其经济效益,推荐施用量为100 kg/hm2
关键词:  羧甲基纤维素钾: 宁夏引黄灌区: 土壤: 饲草燕麦: 产量
DOI:10.11841/j.issn.1007-4333.2022.06.20
投稿时间:2021-11-11
基金项目:宁夏回族自治区重点研发项目(2019BBF02007)
Effects of spraying carboxymethyl cellulose potassium on soil properties and crops in Ningxia Yellow River Irrigation Area
WANG Yongjie1,2,YAN Xing1,2,WANG Ying3,LIU Genhong3,YANG Shiqi1,2*
(1.Institute of Agricultural Environment and Sustainable Development, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China;2.Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment and Climate Change of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100081, China;3.College of Agriculture, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021, China)
Abstract:
To investigate the effects of carboxymethyl cellulose potassium(CMC-K)on improving soil water temperature environment, soil nutrient absorption and crop yield in Ningxia Yellow River Irrigation Area(NYRIA), forage oat was taken as the test crop and carboxymethyl cellulose potassium(CMC-K)was used as the test material. A field experiment was carried out, and CMC-K was sprayed at 0 kg/hm2(CK), 50 kg/hm2(T1), 100 kg/hm2(T2), 200 kg/hm2(T3)and 300 kg/hm2(T4)kg/hm2, and their effects on soil physical and chemical properties, soil nutrients and crop yield in irrigated area were studied. By measuring soil water content, temperature, electrical conductivity, bulk density and soil nutrients, the effects of CMC-K on the yield of forage oat and the correlation between CMC-K application, soil physical and chemical properties, soil nutrients and forage oat yield were analyzed. The results are as follows: The soil water content increased with the increase of the amount of CMC-K, and the soil water content increased 39. 78%-116. 80% at the jointing stage. The accumulated temperature contributed 48. 4-114. 4 ℃ during crop growth period, and increased soil temperature significantly. Soil layer 0-10 cm was beneficial to soil nutrient conservation. The contents of total K and available K were increased by 28. 31%-63. 07% and 34. 72-95. 45% in soil layer 0-20 cm, total k and available K contents were increased by 12. 30%-75. 05% and 25. 65%-125. 37%, indicating that CMC-K had a fixation effect on available P and a significant effect on hydrolyzed N. The yield of forage oat was increased significantly by 29. 9%-62. 47%. There was a significant positive correlation between CMC-K application soil total K, available K content, soil water content and oat yield, and the correlation coefficients were 0. 917, 0. 982, 0. 676 and 0. 983, respectively. Under the experimental conditions in this study, when the application amount of CMC-K was 200 kg/hm2, soil water content, temperature, and soil nutrients were affected, soil total potassium and available potassium contents were increased, hydrolyzed nitrogen was retained, nutrient leaching was reduced. Considering its economic benefit, the final recommended amount was 100 kg/hm2. This research provided a basic theory for the application of CMC-K in NYRIA.
Key words:  potassium carboxymethyl cellulose  Ningxia Yellow River Irrigation Area  soil  forage oat production