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不同施肥模式对马铃薯光合特性及产量品质的影响
徐玉坤,薛龙飞
0
(山西农业大学 高寒区作物研究所, 山西 大同 037008)
摘要:
为解决晋北地区马铃薯生产化肥施用过量的问题,基于3年定位施肥试验,设置无施肥对照处理(CK)、常规施肥处理(CF)和等氮30%有机替代处理(CM)3种不同施肥模式对马铃薯光合特性、产量构成和薯块品质影响进行了研究。结果表明:1)各处理马铃薯相对叶绿素含量(SPAD)和净光合速率(Pn)均随马铃薯生育进程的推进而降低,SPAD和Pn在各个阶段均表现为CM>CF>CK;气孔导度(Gs)、胞间CO2浓度(Ci)和蒸腾速率(Tr)各阶段表现不同,但在生长后期CM处理各项光合指标均优于CF和CK处理;2)相比CK处理,CF和CM处理折合产量分别增产13.4%和16.6%,CF和CM处理商品薯率分别提高2.32%和1.46%;3)相比CK处理,CF和CM处理均可增加薯块中淀粉含量,降低还原糖和水分含量,CM处理对蛋白质含量有显著提升作用。综上,等氮30%有机替代施肥模式能够增加马铃薯叶片叶绿素含量,提高叶片净光合速率,改善马铃薯生长后期光合特性,有效延长叶片光合功能期,促进马铃薯产量提升并增加薯块蛋白质含量,相比常规施肥模式更适合晋北地区马铃薯种植。
关键词:  马铃薯  有机替代  光合特性  产量构成  品质
DOI:10.11841/j.issn.1007-4333.2022.06.07
投稿时间:2021-06-15
基金项目:大同市重点研发计划项目(2019041)
Effects of different fertilization models on the photosynthetic characteristics, yield and quality of potato
XU Yukun,XUE Longfei
(High Latitude Crops Institute, Shanxi Agricultural University, Datong 037008, China)
Abstract:
Aiming at the problem of excessive chemical fertilizer application for potato production in northern Shanxi, based on a 3-year positioning fertilization experiment, the effects of three different fertilization models on photosynthesis characteristics, yield formation and quality of potato, including no nitrogen fertilization(CK), farmers' conventional fertilization(CF), equal nitrogen 30% organic substitution treatment(CM)were studied. The results showed that: 1)With the development of potato growth, both the relative chlorophyll content(SPAD)and net photosynthetic rate(Pn)decreased. The descending order of SPAD and Pn of three treatments was CM>CF>CK at each stage. The changes in stomatal conductance(Gs), transpiration rate(Tr)and intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci)were different at each stage. The photosynthetic indexes of CM treatment were better than those of CF and CK treatments at the late growth period. 2)Compared with CK treatment, the yield of CF and CM treatment increased by 13. 4% and 16. 6%, respectively, and the commercial potato rate of CF and CM treatment increased by 2. 32% and 1. 46%, respectively. 3)Compared with CK treatment, both CF and CM treatments could increase starch content, reduce sugar content and water content. CM treatment had a significant effect on protein content. In conclusion, the equal nitrogen 30% organic substitution treatment could increase the chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate of leaves, effectively prolong the photosynthetic function period of leaves, improve the photosynthetic characteristics of potato in the late growth period, promote the increase of potato yield and increase the protein content of potato tubers. The equal nitrogen 30% organic substitution is more suitable for potato planting in northern Shanxi than conventional fertilization.
Key words:  potato  organic substitution  photosynthetic characteristics  yield formation  quality