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新疆长绒棉育成品种演变趋势及综合评价
郑子漂,徐海江,林涛,郭仁松,王亮,崔建平,张大伟,魏鑫,努斯热提·吾斯曼
0
(新疆农业科学院 经济作物研究所, 乌鲁木齐 830091)
摘要:
为挖掘新疆长绒棉已育成品种的特异性状及遗传潜力,选用38个2010—2019年育成的长绒棉品种为材料,应用系统聚类和灰色关联度等方法对其产量水平、早熟性情况、农艺性状、品质性状及抗病表现进行分析。结果表明:38个长绒棉育成品种的产量均高于同期对照,皮棉产量为1 778.75 kg/hm2,平均增产达12.39%。生育期平均为136.82 d,霜前花率平均为93.74%。通过灰色关联度分析,7个农艺性状与38个育成品种皮棉产量的关联度由高到低为铃重>衣分>子指>株高>始节位>果枝数>铃数。育成品种纤维长度变幅为36.4~41.4 mm,纤维长度≥37 mm的品种有32个,占育成品种总数的84.21%;断裂比强度变幅为42.8~48.8 cN/tex;马克隆值变幅为3.6~4.5;整齐度指数变幅为87.4%~90.1%。年际间枯萎病病情指数变幅在0.05~10.68,38个品种均为高抗、抗和耐枯萎病类型;属高抗黄萎病(病情指数≤10.0)的品种有17个,约占育成品种的一半。将38份长绒棉品种的7个农艺性状和4个纤维品质性状进行了聚类分析并划分成了4个不同类群。综上,2010—2019年育成品种产量总体趋势表现较为平稳;生育期呈现出逐年缩短的趋势;霜前花率总体表现为逐年升高趋势。通过灰色关联度分析,发现铃重、衣分与皮棉产量的关联度最大,关联系数达到0.79。长绒棉育成品种纤维长度呈现逐年增长趋势;断裂比强度、马克隆值和整齐度指数均无较大突破,但维持在了较高水平。38个育成品种分属高抗、抗或耐枯萎病类别;黄萎病病情指数呈现逐年降低的趋势。通过聚类分析将38个育成品种分成了4类,第Ⅰ类主要属于植株高度较高的品种,第Ⅱ类主要属于衣分较高的品种,第Ⅲ类主要属于铃重较大的品种,第Ⅳ类主要属于植株高度较矮的品种,生产中可根据特定育种目标选择杂交亲本进行改良。
关键词:  长绒棉  品种  发展趋势  综合评价
DOI:10.11841/j.issn.1007-4333.2022.06.05
投稿时间:2021-06-24
基金项目:棉花生物学国家重点实验室开放课题(CB2020A22);棉花产业技术体系(CARS-15-50);新疆农业科学院青年科技骨干创新能力培养项目(xjnkq-2020011);新疆农科院经济作物研究所青年科技骨干培养项目(JZRC2019Q03)
Evolution tendency and comprehensive evaluation of long-staple cotton bred varieties in Xinjiang
ZHENG Zipiao,XU Haijiang,LIN Tao,GUO Rensong,WANG Liang,CUI Jianping,ZHANG Dawei,WEI Xin,NUSIRAT Osman
(Institute of Economic Crops, Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Urumqi 830091, China)
Abstract:
To explore the specific traits and genetic potential of Xinjiang long-staple cotton bred varieties, a total of 38 long-staple cotton varieties bred during 2010-2019 were taken as research materials. The yield level, maturity condition, agronomic characters, quality traits and disease resistance were analyzed by using cluster classified and the gray correlation. The results showed that: The yields of the 38 long-staple cotton bred varieties were all higher than that of CK in the same period. The lint yield was 1 778. 75 kg/hm2, which increased by 12. 39% compared with that of CK. The average growth period and the rate of pre-frost lint were 136. 82 d and 93. 74%, respectively. The gray correlation analysis was carried out to study the correlation of the seven agronomic characters with lint yield of the 38 long-staple cotton bred varieties. It was found that the correlation degree from high to low was single boll weight>lint percentage>seed index>plant height>first node position>fruit branch>boll number per plant. The fiber length of these varieties ranged from 36. 4 to 41. 4 mm. The fiber length of 32 varieties accounted for 84. 21% of the total number was ≥37 mm. The fiber strength value, micronaire value and fiber uniformity index were 42. 8-48. 8 cN/tex, 3. 6-4. 5 and 87. 4%-90. 1%, respectively. The annual disease index of Fusarium wilt ranged from 0. 05 to 10. 68, and all the 38 bred varieties belonged to high resistance, tolerant and resistance to Fusarium wilt disease. A total of seventeen bred varieties displayed high resistance to Verticillium wilt disease. Seven agronomic traits and four fiber quality traits were used for cluster analysis, and the 38 long-staple cotton bred varieties were divided into four different groups. Based on the results in this study, the general trend of bred varieties yield was relatively stable during 2010-2019. The length of growth period showed a trend of shortening year by year, and the rate of pre-frost lint was increasing with each passing year. The boll weight and lint percentage had the greatest influence on lint yield by the grey correlation analysis, and its correlation coefficient reached 0. 79. The fiber length of bred varieties increased with each passing year. The performance of fiber strength, micronaire value and fiber uniformity index maintained at a high level but had no major breakthrough. The 38 bred varieties fell into the category of high resistance, resistance or tolerant to Fusarium wilt disease, and disease index of Verticillium wilt presented annually decreasing trend. Cluster analysis classified the 38 varieties into four groups: The first cluster mainly belonged to varieties with taller plant height, the second cluster mostly belonged to varieties with higher lint percentage, the third cluster mainly belonged to varieties with bigger boll weight, the fourth cluster mostly belonged to varieties with shorter plant height. In conclusion, the results above could be used to modify selected cross breeding materials based on specific breeding objectives in production.
Key words:  long-staple cotton  variety  development tendency  comprehensive evaluation