不同基因型冬小麦穗粒数与粒重生理差异分析
投稿时间:2020-03-09    点此下载全文
引用本文:刘雨晴,孙娜娜,高艳梅,张震,刘洋,姚春生,王志敏,张英华.不同基因型冬小麦穗粒数与粒重生理差异分析[J].中国农业大学学报,2021,26(2):1-15
摘要点击次数: 171
全文下载次数: 206
作者单位E-mail
刘雨晴 中国农业大学 农学院, 北京 100193 755462107@qq.com 
孙娜娜 中国农业大学 农学院, 北京 100193  
高艳梅 中国农业大学 农学院, 北京 100193  
张震 中国农业大学 农学院, 北京 100193  
刘洋 中国农业大学 农学院, 北京 100193  
姚春生 中国农业大学 农学院, 北京 100193  
王志敏 中国农业大学 农学院, 北京 100193  
张英华 中国农业大学 农学院, 北京 100193 zhangyh1216@126.com 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31871563);国家重点研发计划(2016YFD0300105)
中文摘要:为分析不同穗型冬小麦籽粒建成的生理差异,以大穗基因型(JS)、小穗基因型(XS)和中穗基因型(JM22)冬小麦品种为材料,测定籽粒形成期和灌浆期器官干物质积累、蔗糖含量和蔗糖相关代谢酶活性、籽粒灌浆特性以及成熟期穗粒数和粒重等指标。结果表明:1)冬小麦穗粒数和粒重基因型间差异显著;2)大穗基因型冬小麦从四分体时期到成熟期单株干物质积累量、开花期穗部干物质分配比例和强、弱势粒灌浆速率都高于中、小穗基因型;3)大穗基因型冬小麦开花期茎鞘的蔗糖积累量显著高于中、小穗基因型,开花后叶片和茎鞘的蔗糖积累高峰晚于中、小穗基因型;4)大穗基因型冬小麦四分体时期到开花期茎鞘的蔗糖转化酶活性以及花后茎鞘和籽粒的蔗糖合酶和转化酶活性显著高于中、小穗基因型。5)相关分析显示,不同时期各器官干物质、开花期上二茎的蔗糖合酶活性和蔗糖含量、四分体时期穗茎的蔗糖合酶和转化酶活性与穗粒数和粒重都呈正相关,花后上二茎转化酶活性以及各器官的蔗糖合酶活性与粒重都呈显著正相关。总之,大穗基因型冬小麦穗粒数较多主要由于开花期穗部干物质分配比例、茎鞘蔗糖合酶活性和转化酶活性均较高;而籽粒灌浆速率和粒重较高则是由于花后茎鞘和穗的蔗糖代谢旺盛,且茎叶同化物向籽粒的转运率和贡献率较高。
中文关键词:冬小麦  籽粒建成  籽粒灌浆  基因型  生理差异
 
Study on the biological differences analysis in grain number per spike and grain weight for different winter wheat genotypes
Abstract:To analyze physiological differences in grain formation of winter wheat, different spike genotypes including big spike genotype(JS), small spike genotype(XS)and middle spike genotype(JM22)were selected as study materials. The dry matter accumulation, the sucrose concentration and the sucrose metabolic enzymes activity in different growth period, and the grain number per spike and grain weight at maturity were determined. The results showed that: Firstly, there were significant differences in grain number per spike and grain weight in different winter wheat genotypes. Secondly, the dry matter accumulation per plant in tetrad period to maturity and the dry matter distribution in spike at anthesis and the grain filling rate of superior and inferior grain were higher in JS than that in XS and JM22. Thirdly, the stem sucrose accumulation in JS was significantly higher than that in other genotypes at anthesis. The peak of sucrose accumulation from leaves to flowering and stems of JS occurred later than XS and JM22, which contributed to higher grain filling rate in JS. Fourthly, the sucrose synthase activity in stem were significantly higher in JS than those in XS and JM22 in tetrad stage and the sourose synthase and invertase activities in grain and stem after anthesis were also significantly higher in JS. Finally, correlation analysis showed that the dry matter of different organs, the sucrose synthase activity and sucrose concentration of top-two-stem at anthesis as well as the sucrose synthase and invertase activity of spike at 15 d pre-anthesis were positively correlated with grain number and grain weight, while the invertase activity of top-two-stem after anthesis as well as the sucrose synthase activity in different organs were positively and significantly correlated with grain weight. In summary, the higher grain number in big spike genotype was mainly due to the higher dry matter distribution in spike and higher sucrose synthase and invertase activities in stem. The higher grain filling stage and grain weight in big spike genotype was due to the higher sucrose metabolism in post-flowering stem and spike as well as the higher translocation and contribution proportion of leaves and stems to grains.
keywords:winter wheat  grain set  grain filling  genotypes  physiological differences
查看全文  查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器