冬前镇压和灌溉对冬小麦植株形态和产量的影响
投稿时间:2018-11-22    点此下载全文
引用本文:蔡斌,禚其翠,王法宏,张宾,司纪升,李升东,孔令安,冯波,李华伟.冬前镇压和灌溉对冬小麦植株形态和产量的影响[J].中国农业大学学报,2019,24(10):30-38
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作者单位E-mail
蔡斌 山东省农业科学院 作物研究所, 济南 250100
中化现代农业有限公司, 北京 100032 
 
禚其翠 山东省农业科学院 作物研究所, 济南 250100  
王法宏 山东省农业科学院 作物研究所, 济南 250100  
张宾 山东省农业科学院 作物研究所, 济南 250100  
司纪升 山东省农业科学院 作物研究所, 济南 250100  
李升东 山东省农业科学院 作物研究所, 济南 250100  
孔令安 山东省农业科学院 作物研究所, 济南 250100  
冯波 山东省农业科学院 作物研究所, 济南 250100  
李华伟 山东省农业科学院 作物研究所, 济南 250100 lily984411@126.com 
基金项目:国家重点研发计划子课题(2016YFD00005);山东省重大科技创新工程项目(2018YFJH0602);泰山产业领军人才-高新农业类项目(SF1405303301)
中文摘要:为明确冬前镇压和灌溉对山东省冬小麦生长发育的影响,在2016-2017年小麦生长季,以‘济麦22’为材料,利用大田随机区组试验,分析冬前镇压+灌溉(C+I)、单独灌溉(I)和单独镇压(C)处理对冬小麦植株形态和产量的影响。结果表明,1)与对照(常规种植管理,CK)相比,冬前镇压+灌溉、单独灌溉或镇压都可提高分蘖数、分蘖成穗率和成熟期株高,其中镇压+灌溉处理提高值最大,其次是单独镇压或灌溉处理;2)冬前镇压+灌溉、单独镇压和单独灌溉处理均可降低灌浆期小麦基部第一和二节间长度,增加其比茎重、茎粗以及壁厚,镇压+灌溉处理作用最大,其次是单独镇压和灌溉处理;3)冬前镇压+灌溉、单独灌溉和镇压处理可降低小麦花前贮藏物质的转运量、转移率以及对籽粒的贡献率,却可显著提高花后干物质的积累、转运量、转运率及其对籽粒的贡献率,其中冬前镇压+灌溉处理对物质转运影响最大;4)冬前镇压+灌溉、单独灌溉和镇压处理显著提高小麦单位面积穗数、产量和收获指数,其中最大值出现在镇压+灌溉处理,其次是灌溉和镇压处理。本研究表明,镇压+灌溉(C+I)或单独灌溉(I)或镇压(C)都可以促进小麦生长,提高小麦抗倒伏性和最终产量,其中镇压和灌溉相结合作用要大于单独措施,所以山东省小麦生产中冬前镇压+灌溉措施最佳,但即使在无灌溉条件下,镇压措施仍有利于小麦生产。
中文关键词:小麦  镇压  灌溉  植株形态  产量
 
Effects of pre-winter compaction and irrigation on the plant morphology and yield of winter wheat
Abstract:In order to clarify the effect of pre-winter compaction and irrigation on the growth of winter wheat,a field experiment was carried out during 2016-2017 winter wheat growing season.Pre-winter compaction + irrigation (C+I),irrigation (I) and compaction (C) were applied to the winter wheat variety ‘Jimai 22’,the normal growing plant was used as a control (CK),and the plant morphology and yield were analyzed in this experiment.The results showed that the tiller number and effective spike rate of tiller were increased and the final height of the wheat was highest in C+I,followed by I,C,and CK treatments.The length of the basal first and second internodes of wheat was reduced,and the unit length dry weight,stem thick and wall thickness were all increased significantly in C+I,followed by C and I treatments compared with control.The transferred amount,transfer rate of the pre-anthesis stored dry matter and its contribution rate to grain yield were reduced by C+I,C and I,with the maximum reduction found in C+I,followed by C and I.However,the amount of dry mater accumulated during post-anthsis and its contribution rate to grain yield were the highest in C+I.The spike number per unit area,final yield and harvest index of C+I treatment were all maximum and higher than C,I and CK successively.In conclusion,these result showed that pre-winter compaction+irrigation or individual irrigation or compaction could promote wheat growth and increase the lodging resistance and final yield of wheat.The combination of compaction and irrigation is greater than individual measures.Therefore,the pre-winter compaction + irrigation measures in production is optimal for the growth of winter wheat in Shandong Province.However,even under the situation of no irrigation conditions,pre-winter compaction is also beneficial to wheat production.
keywords:wheat  compaction  irrigation  plant morphology  yield
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