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寒冷地区奶牛舍建筑形式对牛舍热环境舒适性的影响效果
王琦1,2,刘运颖1,2,杜欣怡1,2,赵婉莹4,王朝元1,2,3,施正香1,2,3*
0
(1.中国农业大学 水利与土木工程学院,北京 100083;2.农业农村部设施农业工程重点实验室,北京 100083;3.北京市畜禽健康养殖环境工程技术研究中心,北京 100083;4.中国农村技术开发中心,北京 100045)
摘要:
针对目前我国奶牛舍在寒冷地区应用时保温隔热性能不足的问题,采用建筑热工评价和奶牛热应激评估相结合的方法,对寒冷地区开放式和密闭有窗式2种牛舍的围护结构热阻进行测算,对牛舍内夏季的热环境参数进行测试并采用温湿指数和奶牛皮肤温度指数对奶牛的热应激程度进行评估,基于已有研究对牛舍内冬季的热环境进行理论预测,对寒冷地区应用不同建筑形式的奶牛舍的舍内热环境舒适性效果进行研究。结果表明:1)开放式和密闭有窗式牛舍的屋面热阻值基本满足要求,但侧墙热阻值均显著低于该地区要求的墙体低限热阻值;2)在夏季,2种建筑形式的牛舍在寒冷地区均可提供较舒适的舍内热环境,舍内奶牛热应激问题不显著;3)冬季应用时舍内温度均无法满足要求。开放式牛舍应用于我国寒冷地区时无法提供适宜的舍内热环境,建议采用密闭有窗式牛舍,要求其墙体热阻值≥ 1.137 m2·K/W,屋面热阻值≥1.459 m2·K/W。
关键词:  建筑形式  热环境  环境舒适性  牛舍
DOI:10.11841/j.issn.1007-4333.2024.08.14
投稿时间:2024-11-24
基金项目:财政部和农业农村部:国家现代农业产业技术体系资助(CARS36)
Effect of building forms on the thermal comfort of dairy barns in cold regions
WANG Qi1,2, LIU Yunying1,2, DU Xinyi1,2, ZHAO Wanying4, WANG Chaoyuan1,2,3, SHI Zhengxiang1,2,3*
(1.College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China;2.Key Laboratory of Agricultural Engineering in Structure and Environment of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100083, China;3.Beijing Engineering Research Center on Animal Healthy Environment, Beijing 100083, China;4.China Rural Technology Development Center, Beijing 100045, China)
Abstract:
In response to the current problems of insufficient thermal insulation and heat preservation in dairy barns in cold regions of China, this study used a combination of the thermal evaluation of the building and heat stress assessment of the cows. The thermal resistances of the enclosure structure of the open barn and the closed window barn in the cold region were measured. The summer thermal environment conditions in the barns were tested and analyzed. The temperature-humidity index (THI) and the skin temperature index for cows (STIC) were used to assess heat stress of the cows. The predictive calculations of theoretical values for the thermal environment in winter in a barn were carried out based on previous studies. The comfort effect of the thermal environment in dairy barns with different building forms in cold regions was studied. The results showed that the thermal resistance and roof thermal resistance of both open and enclosed windowed barns met the requirements, but the thermal resistance of the side walls was significantly lower than the minimum thermal resistance required for the region. In the summer, both types of barns provided a relatively comfortable thermal environment in the cold region. The heat stress was not a serious problem for cows in the barns. However, in the winter, the indoor temperature in both types of barns did not meet the requirements. This study concluded that the open barn could not provide the suitable thermal environment inside the barn in the cold regions of the country. This study recommends the use of a closed windowed barn, which should have a thermal resistance value ≥1.137 m2·K/W for the walls and ≥1.459 m2·K/W for the roof.
Key words:  construction forms  thermal environment  environment comfort  barns