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生物炭对放牧绒山羊羊粪堆肥腐熟度及臭气排放的影响
黄引超1,董晨曦1,袁京2,张微1,和立文1*
0
(1.中国农业大学 动物科学技术学院/畜禽营养与饲养全国重点实验室,北京 100193;2.中国农业大学 资源与环境学院,北京 100193)
摘要:
为研究添加生物炭对放牧绒山羊羊粪堆肥腐熟过程的影响,以羊粪和玉米秸秆为堆肥原料,生物炭为添加剂,进行好氧堆肥试验,对照组(CK)不作处理,处理组1、2、3(T1、T2、T3)分别添加堆体干重的5%、10%和15%生物炭,分析生物炭对堆肥基本理化性质、腐熟度、臭气和木质纤维素组成的影响。结果表明:1)添加生物炭可以显著提高堆肥最高温(64.8 ℃)和延长高温期持续时间,并提高堆肥结束时的pH(P<0.01),降低电导率。2)堆肥结束时CK、T1、T2和T3的总氮含量分别为19.69、19.92、21.30和20.30 g/kg,种子发芽指数分别为149%、154%、189%和186%。与CK相比,T2和T3显著提高堆肥结束时总氮含量(P<0.05),降低堆肥氮素损失33.53%和23.71%,并显著提高堆肥种子发芽指数27%和 25%(P<0.05)。3)与CK相比,T1、T2和T3可分别减少NH3累积排放量25.25%、40.50%和28.89%,减少H2S 累积排放量26.33%、29.50%和30.09%。4)堆肥结束时4个组的纤维素、半纤维素和木质素降解率分别为48.76%~56.29%、37.60%~48.13%和6.65%~14.20%。处理组纤维素降解率(T1(52.90%)、T2(53.81%)和T3(56.29%))均高于CK(48.76%)(P<0.05),提高8.48%~15.44%;T2(48.13%)和T3(47.8%)的半纤维素降解率显著高于CK(38.43%)(P<0.05),分别提高24.37%和25.22%;T2的木质素降解率(14.2%)显著高于T1(11.20%)和T3(10.37%)(P<0.05),又极显著高于CK(6.65%)(P<0.01),处理组木质素降解率较CK提高56.08%~113.04%。综上,在本研究条件下,在羊粪堆肥中添加生物炭可有效减少放牧条件下羊粪堆肥中氮素损失和臭气排放,促进木质纤维素降解,提高堆肥种子发芽指数和腐熟度,提升堆肥产品品质,因此推荐生物炭添加量为干重10%。
关键词:  羊粪  生物炭  好氧堆肥  碳氮比  木质纤维素
DOI:10.11841/j.issn.1007-4333.2024.08.13
投稿时间:2024-01-02
基金项目:内蒙古自治区科技重大专项(2021ZD0019)
Effects of biochar on the maturity, degradation of lignocellulose, and odor emissions of aerobic composting of grazing cashmere goat manure
HUANG Yinchao1, DONG Chenxi1, YUAN Jing2, ZHANG Wei1, HE Liwen1*
(1.College of Animal Science and Technology/ State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feeding, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193,China;2.College of Resources and Environmental Sciences,China Agricultural University, Beijing 100913,China)
Abstract:
To study the effect of adding biochar on the composting process of goat manure, an aerobic composting experiment was conducted using goat manure and corn straw as composting materials and corn straw biochar as additives. The control group (CK) was not treated, while treatment groups 1, 2, and 3 (T1, T2, T3) were added in 5%, 10% and 15% biochar on a dry matter basis, respectively. The effects of biochar on the basic physicochemical properties, maturity, gas emission, and lignocellulose fractions of the compost were analyzed. The results showed that:1)Adding biochar could significantly increase the maximum temperature of compost (64.8 ℃) and prolong the duration of high temperature (7 days), and increase the pH (P<0.01) at the end of composting, and reduce electrical conductivity.2)At the end of composting, the total nitrogen (TN) contents of CK, T1, T2 and T3 were 19.69, 19.92, 21.30 and 20.30 g/kg, respectively, and the seed germination indices were 149%, 154%, 189% and 186%, respectively. Compared with CK, T2 and T3 significantly increased the total nitrogen content at the end of composting (P<0.05), reduced nitrogen loss in composting by 33.53% and 23.71%, and significantly improved the seed germination index of compost by 27% and 25% (P<0.05). 3)Compared with CK, T1, T2, and T3 can reduce NH3 cumulative emissions by 25.25%, 40.50% and 28.89%, respectively, and reduce H2S cumulative emissions by 26.33%, 29.50% and 30.09%, respectively. 4)At the end of composting, the degradation rates of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in the four groups were in the range of 48.76%-56.29%, 37.60%-48.13%, and 6.65%-14.20%, respectively. The cellulose degradation rates in the treatment groups (T1(52.90%),T2(53.81%), T3(56.29%)) were all higher than that in the control group (48.76%) (P<0.05), with an improvement of 8.48% to 15.44%.The hemicellulose degradation rates of T2 (48.13%) and T3 (47.8%) were significantly higher than that of CK (38.43%) (P<0.05), with an increase of 24.37% and 25.22%, respectively. The lignin degradation rate of T2 (14.2%) was significantly higher than that of T1 (11.20%) and T3 (10.37%) (P<0.05), and was also significantly higher than that of CK (6.65%) (P<0.05). Compared with CK, the lignin degradation rates of treatment groups increased by 56.08% to 113.04%. In conclusion, under the experimental conditions of this study, the addition of biochar to goat manure compost can effectively reduce nitrogen loss and odor emissions during composting of goat manure under grazing conditions. promote lignocellulose degradation, and increase the germination index and maturity of the compost, and enhance the quality of the compost product. Therefore, it is recommended that the amount of biochar added be 10% of the dry weight.
Key words:  goat manure  biochar  aerobic composting  carbon nitrogen ratio  lignocellulose