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农用酵素处理餐厨垃圾酸化效果及代谢产物变化特征
白宏宇1,卢静洁2,杨培志1,胡跃高2,王小芬2
0
(1.西北农林科技大学 草业与草原学院,陕西 杨凌 712100;2.中国农业大学 农学院,北京 100193)
摘要:
为探究农用酵素对餐厨垃圾快速产酸发酵的影响,设置5个处理分别为添加0(JT0)、1 (JT1)、3(JT3)、7(JT7)、10 g/L(JT10)的农用酵素进行餐厨垃圾发酵,测定各处理发酵过程中pH、有机酸、干物质、粗蛋白、粗脂肪灰分的动态变化。结果表明:1) 发酵第1天5个处理的pH均显著下降,第7天后基本处于稳定。在发酵酸化过程前3 d有乳酸、乙酸、丙酸产生,且乳酸含量显著高于乙酸、丙酸。其中JT3最终乳酸含量最高,为50.65 mg/L。乳酸的产生会造成pH的迅速下降。各个处理均在发酵3 d时产生大量的乳酸,7 d后产酸基本结束,pH也趋于稳定。餐厨垃圾主要产酸时期为前3 d,并于第7天趋于平缓。2)在发酵第7天时,JT3的干物质含量为21.77 g/100 g,比发酵前降低11.13%,比其他同时期处理下降最多。从整体趋势上来看,各处理均在发酵第7天时,粗蛋白含量达到最大。JT3在发酵第7天时粗蛋白含量最高,为19.90 g/100 g。各处理在发酵后粗脂肪含量都有所下降,除JT10中粗脂肪含量与原料无显著差异,其余各处理均显著下降(P<0.05),其中,JT3粗脂肪含量最高为17.54 g/100 g。结合pH、有机酸及各项代谢产物来看,JT3的发酵效果相对较好。综上,农用酵素添加量为3 g/L,发酵时间为4~7 d,餐厨垃圾发酵酸化效果最佳,是低成本快速处理餐厨垃圾的有效方法。
关键词:  餐厨垃圾  农用酵素  餐厨垃圾酸化
DOI:10.11841/j.issn.1007-4333.2024.06.16
投稿时间:2023-12-03
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2021YFD1901103)
Acidification effect and metabolic product changes of agricultural Jiaosu in the treatment of kitchen waste
BAI Hongyu1, LU Jingjie2, YANG Peizhi1, HU Yuegao2, WANG Xiaofen2
(1.College of Grassland Agriculture, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, China;2.College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China)
Abstract:
In order to explore the effect of agricultural Jiaosu on rapid acid production and fermentation of kitchen waste, five treatments were set up by respectively adding 0(JT0), 1(JT1), 3(JT3), 7(JT7) and 10 g/L(JT10) to kitchen waste for fermentation. The dynamic change of pH, organic acid, dry matter, crude protein and crude fat ash in the fermentation process were determined. The results showed that: 1) The pH of the five treatments decreased significantly on the first day of fermentation and was basically stable after the 7th day. Lactic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid were produced 3 d before fermentation acidification, and the content of lactic acid was significantly higher than that of acetic acid and propionic acid. Among them, the final lactic acid content of 50.65 mg/L under JT3 treatment was the highest. The production of lactic acid caused the rapid decline of pH. A large amount of lactic acid was produced in each treatment after 3 d of fermentation, and the acid production basically ended after 7 d, and pH also tended to be stable. The main acid production period of kitchen waste was in the first 3 d and tended to level off on the 7th day. 2) On the 7th day of fermentation, the dry matter content of JT3 treatment was 21.77 g/100 g, which was 11.13% lower than that of before fermentation, and the highest decrease compared with other treatments in the same period. Overall, the crude protein content of each treatment reached the maximum on the 7th day of fermentation. On the 7th day of fermentation, the crude protein content of 19.90 g/100 g under JT3 treatment was the highest. After fermentation, the crude fat content of all treatments decreased significantly (P < 0.05), and there was no significant difference between the crude fat content of JT10 and raw materials, among them, the highest crude fat content of JT3 was 17.54 g/100 g. Combined with pH, organic acids and various metabolites, the fermentation effect of JT3 treatment was relatively good. In summary, when the addition amount of agricultural Jiaosu is 3 g/L and the fermentation time is 4-7 d, the acidizing effect of kitchen waste fermentation is the best, which can be used as an effective way for low-cost and rapid treatment of kitchen waste.
Key words:  kitchen waste  agricultural Jiaosu  acidification of kitchen waste