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农用酵素对有机番茄高品质生产的作用
刘宇1,陈娇月1,赵飞2,刘小平3,张强4,周立宏5,高游慧1
0
(1.中国农业大学 农学院,北京 100193;2.北京平仁农业发展有限公司,北京 102200;3.四川省泸县农业农村局,四川 泸州 646100;4.山西省灵丘县东河南镇人民政府,山西 大同 034400;5.山西省灵丘县现代农业发展中心,山西 大同 034400)
摘要:
为探究农用酵素在有机番茄种子发芽和种植过程中的提质作用,以番茄品种‘苹果青’为试验材料,进行了发芽试验和栽培试验;发芽试验中,使用商品育苗(S)和农场自制(Z)基质,每种基质都设置农用酵素(JS)和自来水(CK)处理,测定番茄种子的发芽势和发芽率;在栽培试验中,采用裂区设计,主区为农用酵素处理(灌根250 mL+地上部喷施20 mL, J1),以等量水替代酵素为对照(J0),以15(Y1)、45(Y2)、75(Y3)t/hm2有机肥用量为副区,共6个处理,测定番茄株高、茎粗、节间长度、叶片SPAD、产量、品质、土壤养分等指标,对品质综合评价值(D)最高的农用酵素灌溉处理的土壤微生物群落结构变化进行分析。结果表明:1)农用酵素处理可以提高番茄种子发芽势和发芽率。ZJS的发芽势和发芽率分别比ZCK上升26.7%和4.3%;SJS的发芽势和发芽率分别比SCK升高2.3%和2.0%。2)栽培试验中,农用酵素处理可促进植株健康生长、提升番茄产量和品质。其中,J1的番茄茎粗相较于J0增加6.4%~7.1%,SPAD升高6.3%~7.1%,植株节间缩短11.9%~21.2%,产量增加9.7%~16.9%;Y1、Y2有机肥用量下J1果实中的番茄红素含量、维生素C含量、糖酸比分别较J0升高55.7%~70.7%、7.2%~17.0%、24.2%~33.4%,且各有机肥用量下J1果实品质指标综合评价值均高于J0。3)农用酵素可以改善土壤养分状况与微生物群落结构。J1的土壤有机质含量较J0升高24.2%~43.6%,硝态氮含量较J0升高17.3%~28.0%;土壤细菌和真菌群落丰富度较J0分别下降12.2%和22.8%,但土壤中子囊菌门的真菌丰度上升6.24%,厚壁菌门和酸杆菌门的细菌丰度分别上升6.31%和11.33%。综上,施用农用酵素可有效提升有机番茄优质高产的生产效能。
关键词:  番茄  农用酵素  发芽  种植技术  土壤微生物
DOI:10.11841/j.issn.1007-4333.2024.06.15
投稿时间:2023-11-30
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2021YFD1901103)
Effects of agricultural Jiaosu on the high-quality production of organic tomato
LIU Yu1, CHEN Jiaoyue1, ZHAO Fei2, LIU Xiaoping3, ZHANG Qiang4, ZHOU Lihong5, GAO Youhui1
(1.College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China;2.Beijing Pingren Agricultural Development Co., Ltd., Beijing 102200, China;3.Agricultural and Rural Affairs of Lu County, Sichuan Province, Luzhou 646100, China;4.People’s Government of Donghenan Town, Shanxi Province, Datong 034400, China;5.Modern Agricultural Development Center of Lingqiu County, Shanxi Province, Datong 034400, China)
Abstract:
In order to explore the role of agricultural Jiaosu (AJ) in improving the quality of organic tomato during germination and planting, germination and cultivation experiments were carried out by taking tomato variety 'Pingguoqing' as experimental material. In the germination experiment, the commercial seedling (S) and farm-made (Z) substrates were used, and each substrate was treated with AJ (JS) and water (CK), respectively. The germination energy and germination rate of tomato seeds were determined; In the cultivation experiment, a split zone design was adopted. In the main zone, the amount of AJ root irrigation 250 mL + aboveground spraying 20 mL (J1) were applied, meanwhile the control is to replace AJ with an equal amount of water (J0). In secondary zone, the amount of 15 (Y1), 45 (Y2) and 75 (Y3) t/hm2 organic fertilizer were designated. There were 6 treatments in total. The plant height, stem diameter, internode length, leaf SPAD, yield, quality and soil nutrients of tomato were measured, and the changes of soil microbial community structure under the treatment with the highest comprehensive evaluation value (D) of quality were measured. The results showed that: 1) AJ improved the germination energy and germination rate of tomato seeds. The germination energy and germination rate of ZJS were 26.7% and 4.3% higher than those of ZCK, and the germination energy and germination rate of SJS were 2.3% and 2.0% higher than those of SCK, respectively. 2) In the cultivation experiment, AJ promoted the healthy growth of plants and improved the yield and quality of tomato. Compared with J0, the stem diameter of tomato treated with J1 increased by 6.4%-7.1%, the SPAD increased by 6.3%-7.1%. The plant internode shortened by 11.9%-21.2%, and the yield increased by 9.7%-16.9%. Under the amount of Y1 and Y2 organic fertilizer, the lycopene content, vitamin C content and sugar-acid ratio of J1 fruit increased by 55.7%-70.7%, 7.2%-17.0% and 24.2%-33.4%, respectively. Compared with J0, and the comprehensive evaluation value of fruit quality of J1 was higher than that of J0. 3) AJ improved soil nutrient status and microbial community structure. Compared with J0, the content of soil organic matter of J1 increased by 24.2%-43.6%, the content of nitrate nitrogen increased by 17.3%-28.0%, and the richness of soil bacterial and fungal communities respectively decreased by 12.2% and 22.8% compared with J0. However, the fungal abundance of the phylum Ascomycota in the soil increased by 6.24%, and that of Firmicutes and Acidobacteria increased by 6.31% and 11.33%, respectively. In summary, AJ effectively enhanced the germination of tomato seeds in different substrates, improved the plant type and leaf photosynthetic capacity of tomato, and increased the contents of soil organic matter and nitrate nitrogen. At the same time, it also increased the abundance of microorganisms such as Ascomycetes and Bacillus, promoted the growth and development of plants, which makes it can be used for high-quality and high-yield cultivation of organic tomato.
Key words:  tomato  agricultural Jiaosu  germination  planting techniques  soil microorganisms