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农用酵素对人粪尿肥料转化的影响及微生物群落响应机制
许书林1,2,徐润钰2,王馨悦2,白宏宇3,刘宇2,陈春虹4,王小芬1,2
0
(1.中国农业大学 三亚研究院,海南 三亚 572000;2.中国农业大学 农学院,北京 100193;3.西北农林科技大学 草业与草原学院,陕西 杨凌 712100;4.义源(上海)节能环保科技有限公司,上海 200083)
摘要:
为研究农用酵素对化粪池微生物群落和出水肥料价值的影响,以农村户用式三格化粪池为反应器,设置添加0.2% (VV)酵素(AJ)和不添加农用酵素(CK)处理,测定化粪池三池出水的pH、铵态氮、游离氨、硝态氮、sCOD和微生物多样性等指标,以及AJ和CK出水灌溉的小白菜植株根长、株高、叶面积、干重和鲜重等指标,并利用共现性网络和线性判别效应量分析(LEfSe)对微生物信息进行注释并推测中心类群。结果表明,添加农用酵素改变了化粪池出水细菌中除Fastidiosipila外的优势类群和所有中心类群,AJ中嗜蛋白菌属(Proteiniphilum)和脱硫微杆菌属(Desulfomicrobium)的丰度相比CK分别提升7.04%和10.14%(P<0.05)。而在CK中,泰氏菌属(Tissierella)同时是优势类群和中心类群,在AJ中丰度下降5.62%(P<0.05)。农用酵素的添加可减少人粪尿发酵过程中对植物生长有害成分的含量,AJ出水的游离氨和sCOD分别比CK降低24.5%和27.5%(P<0.05)。施用AJ出水可使小白菜的成活率和产量比CK分别升高17%和34%。综上,在人粪尿发酵过程中添加农用酵素可提升有益土壤或植物生长的细菌丰度,提高有机物代谢速率,并降低对作物生长有害成分的含量,提升了出水的肥料价值。
关键词:  农用酵素  微生物多样性  关键类群  人粪尿肥料化
DOI:10.11841/j.issn.1007-4333.2024.06.14
投稿时间:2023-12-10
基金项目:十四五重点研发计划(2021YFD1901103);三亚崖州湾科技城博士研究生科研创新基金(HSPHDSRF-2023-05-014)
Effects of agricultural Jiaosu on human excrement transformation and microbial community response mechanism
XU Shulin1,2, XU Runyu2, WANG Xinyue2, BAI Hongyu3, LIU Yu2, CHEN Chunhong4, WANG Xiaofen1,2
(1.Sanya Institute of China Agricultural University, Sanya 572000, China;2.College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China;3.College of Grassland Agriculture, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, China;4.Yiyuan (Shanghai) Energy Conservation and Environmental Protection Technology Co., Ltd., Shanghai 200083, China)
Abstract:
To investigate the effects of agricultural Jiaosu on microbial community and fertilizer value of effluent of septic tank, a rural household three-chamber septic tank was utilized as a reactor. Two treatments were established: One with the addition of 0.2% agricultural Jiaosu (AJ) and another without agricultural Jiaosu (CK). Various parameters including pH, ammonium nitrogen, free ammonia, nitrate nitrogen, sCOD, and microbial diversity of the effluent from the three chambers of the septic tank were measured. Additionally, the effects of different treatments on root length, plant height, leaf area, dry weight, and fresh weight of pakchoi were determined. Co-occurrence networks and Linear Discriminant Effect Size analysis (LEfSe) were employed to annotate microbial information and infer central taxa. The results indicate that the addition of agricultural Jiaosu altered the dominant taxa except Fastidiosipila and all central taxa among the bacteria in the septic tank effluent. Compared to CK, the abundance of Proteiniphilum and Desulfomicrobium in AJ increased by 7.04% and 10.14%, respectively (P<0.05). Tissierella was both a dominant taxon and a central taxon in CK, but its abundance decreased by 5.62% in AJ (P<0.05). In terms of chemical properties, the addition of agricultural Jiaosu helped reduce the content of harmful components for plant growth during the fermentation of human excrement. Compared with CK, the free ammonia and sCOD in AJ effluent decreased by 24.5% and 27.5%, respectively (P<0.05). Application of AJ effluent increased the survival rate and yield of pakchoi by an average of 17% and 34% compared to CK. In conclusion, the addition of agricultural Jiaosu during the fermentation of human excrement the abundance of bacteria beneficial to soil or plants, improves the rate of organic matter metabolism, and enhances effluent application effectiveness by reducing the content of harmful components for crop growth.
Key words:  agricultural Jiaosu  microbial diversity  keystone taxa  human excrement fertilization