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有机农田中的土著天敌及其生境保全方法
徐启聪1,徐启贺2,王大超3,孔德强4
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(1.自然农法国际研究开发中心,日本 松本 3901401;2.曲靖师范学院,云南 曲靖 655011;3.黑龙江龙翰种业有限公司,黑龙江 齐齐哈尔 161006;4.博兴县农业农村综合服务中心,山东 博兴 256500)
摘要:
为进一步了解有机农业生产中的害虫生物防治,本研究结合近年来的研究与田间实践,概述了土著天敌的基本特征、相关生态学原理以及有机农田中常见的土著天敌种类,分析了土著天敌在农田中的栖息机制,总结了一系列目前有机生产中常用的土著天敌保全方法。分析发现土著天敌的种群密度往往容易受到农事耕作、农药以及异常气候的影响,若要充分发挥其对害虫的控制潜力,积极的、适度的天敌生境管理是有必要的。良好的生境能够保证天敌生存所需的充足的食物、必要的水分和适宜的遮盖物。在实施方法上,通过妥善施用有机物和管理农田植被,来逐步改善土壤环境,建立起一个具备稳定、丰富、持久的生物多样性的农田生态系统,从而为土著天敌的生境保全提供可能。最后,从有机农田中土著天敌生境保全的实施策略方面提出了相关建议,以期为有机农业从业者提供参考。
关键词:  有机栽培  害虫控制  土著天敌  农田生物多样性  天敌生境管理  保全型生物控制
DOI:10.11841/j.issn.1007-4333.2024.06.12
投稿时间:2023-12-10
基金项目:曲靖师范学院科技创新联合专项重点项目(KJLH2023ZD08)
Indigenous natural enemies and their conservation methods in organic farmland
XU Qicong1, XU Qihe2, WANG Dachao3, KONG Deqiang4
(1.International Nature Farming Research Center, Matsumoto 3901401, Japan;2.QuJing Normal University, Qujing 655011, China;3.Heilongjiang Longhan Seed Industry Co., Ltd, Qiqihar 161006, China;4.Boxing Agricultural and Rural Comprehensive Service Center, Boxing 256500, China)
Abstract:
To gain a deeper understanding of biological pest control in organic agricultural production, in this study, based on the combination with recent research and field practice, the basic characteristics, associated ecological principles and common types of indigenous natural enemies in organic farmland were briefly summarized. The habitat mechanism of indigenous natural enemies in farmland was analyzed and a series of conservation methods commonly used in current organic production were summarized. The analysis revealed that the population density of indigenous natural enemies was often affected by agricultural cultivation, pesticides and abnormal climate.To fully tap into their potential for pest control, active and moderate habitat management of natural enemies was necessary. A good habitat can ensure sufficient food, necessary humidity and suitable shelter for the survival of indigenous natural enemies. In terms of implementation,by properly applying organic matter and managing farmland vegetation, the soil environment can be gradually improved, and a stable, rich, and sustainable farmland ecosystem with biodiversity can be established, thereby providing possibilities for the habitat conservation of indigenous natural enemies. Finally, relevant suggestions were put forward for the implementation strategies of habitat conservation of indigenous natural enemies in organic farmland, in order to provide reference for practitioners in organic agriculture.
Key words:  organic agriculture  pest control  indigenous natural enemies  farmland biodiversity  habitat management  conservation biological control