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国际有机农业运动的发展历程对中国有机产业的启示
李峰1,冯旭2,和文龙3,乔玉辉2
0
(1.国际有机农业亚洲联盟, 上海 200050;2.中国农业大学 资源与环境学院,北京 100193;3.南京农业大学 资源与环境学院,南京 210014)
摘要:
为深入探讨国际有机农业和中国有机产业的发展历程,以其整体发展情况为研究对象,利用对比研究法和经验总结法,对国际有机农业和中国有机产业的发展历程进行了回溯和对比。结果表明:1)20世纪初,科学和技术的发展推动了现代农业的发展进展。在整体论和还原论这2种不同观点指导下,现代农业分化成有机农业和常规农业2大体系,两者既矛盾又统一;2)国际有机农业理念多样,经历了起源、发展壮大和迈向主流化等3个发展阶段,分别称为有机1.0、2.0和3.0阶段。3)20世纪90年代,有机农业主要以农产品认证的形式正式被引入国内,国内对其理念、政策、人才和技术尚未成体系。因此,中国有机产业虽然市场发展快速,但是面临生产端需要更高质量发展的境况;4)基于还原论的常规农业是机械唯物主义在农业领域的表现,与以辩证唯物主义与历史唯物主义为指导的中国特色的社会主义农业农村现代化终将存在分歧。中国农业现代化不能只是侧重常规农业,更必须发展以整体论为指导的有机农业。总之,有机产业在中国取得了优异的成果,同时也正面临巨大挑战。在新常态下,中国有机产业应着力建立起全面的科学哲学、科学与技术以及产业与实践体系,以满足消费者对有机理念到产品与服务的多维度需求。
关键词:  有机农业  整体论  还原论  社会主义农业农村现代化
DOI:10.11841/j.issn.1007-4333.2024.06.03
投稿时间:2023-12-20
基金项目:北京市社会科学基金项目(21JJB014)
Inspiration of the development of international organic agriculture movements for organic industry in China
LI Feng1, FENG Xu2, HE Wenlong3, QIAO Yuhui2
(1.IFOAM-Organics Asia, Shanghai 200050, China;2.College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agriculture University, Beijing 100193, China;3.College of Recourse and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210014, China)
Abstract:
This study uses comparative research and experience summary methods to review and compare the international organic agriculture movements and China's organic industry, so to deepen the understanding of their whole development processes. The results show that: 1) At the beginning of the 20th century, the development of science and technology promoted the emergence of modern agriculture. Under the two different views of holism and reductionism, modern agriculture differentiates into Organic Agriculture system and conventional agriculture system, which are contradictory but unified. 2) International Organic Agriculture has diverse concepts and has experienced three development stages: origin, development and mainstreaming, which are called Organic Agriculture 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0, respectively. 3) In the 1990s, Organic Agriculture was introduced into China mainly in the form as an agricultural product certification system, but its concepts, policies, talents and technologies have not been systematically developed yet. Therefore, China's organic industry is facing a situation where the market is developing rapidly, but the production needs higher quality development; 4) Conventional agriculture is a manifestation of mechanical materialism in agriculture, which eventually cannot adapt to socialist modernization of agriculture and rural areas conducted by dialectical materialism and historical materialism. Therefore, the modernization of China's agriculture should not only focus on conventional agriculture, but must also develop Organic Agriculture conducted by holism. To sum up, China's organic industry has achieved great success but is also facing great challenges. Under the new normal, China Organic should strive to establish a comprehensive scientific philosophy, science and technology, and industrial practice system to meet the market's multi-dimensional demand from organic concepts to organic products and services.
Key words:  organic agriculture  holism  reductionism  socialist modernization of agriculture and rural areas