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河流网箱养殖与池塘养殖鲤鱼营养及品质评价
梁释介1,丁宁1,冯淳淞1,闫有利2,罗永康1*
0
(1.中国农业大学 食品科学与营养工程学院, 北京 100083;2.辽宁省淡水水产科学研究院, 辽宁 辽阳 111000)
摘要:
为较好的了解评价河流网箱养殖与普通池塘养殖鲤鱼鱼肉的营养品质及特点,分别对2种养殖方式的鲤鱼肉的感官、色泽、肌苷酸(IMP)含量、营养成分(粗蛋白、粗脂肪、水分、灰分)、氨基酸组成、蛋白质体外消化率、模拟消化后相对分子质量分布以及蒸煮得率进行分析评价。结果表明:1)感官评价表明河流网箱养殖鲤鱼与池塘养殖鲤鱼相比,生肉清香味更强、土腥味和鱼腥味更低,熟肉具有更好的质地和口感,河流网箱养殖鲤鱼生、熟肉总体可接受度均更高;河流网箱养殖鲤鱼肉的亮度值L*和白度值显著(P<0.05)高于池塘养殖鲤鱼肉;2)河流网箱养殖鲤鱼肉的主要鲜味物质IMP含量显著(P<0.05)高于池塘养殖鲤鱼肉;3)河流网箱养殖鲤鱼肉蛋白质质量分数(18.16%)显著(P<0.05)高于池塘养殖鲤鱼肉(17.43%),水分与灰分含量没有显著差异;河流网箱养殖鲤鱼肉的总氨基酸含量、总必需氨基酸含量、总非必需氨基酸含量、总鲜味氨基酸含量、总必需氨基酸总量与总氨基酸含量的比值、总必需氨基酸含量与总非必需氨基酸含量的比值均显著(P<0.05)高于池塘养殖鲤鱼肉;河流网箱养殖鲤鱼肉蛋白质体外模拟消化率(67.13%)显著(P<0.05)高于池塘养殖鲤鱼肉(55.86%);4)池塘养殖鲤鱼肉的蒸煮得率(78.91%)显著(P<0.05)低于河流网箱养殖鲤鱼肉(83.11%)。与池塘养殖鲤鱼相比,河流网箱养殖鲤鱼具有更多的蛋白质和鲜味物质,气味、质地和口感更佳,且较有利于人体消化吸收。
关键词:  鲤鱼  河流网箱养殖  池塘养殖  营养品质
DOI:10.11841/j.issn.1007-4333.2023.05.14
投稿时间:2022-07-30
基金项目:现代农业产业技术体系专项资金(CARS-45)
Nutrition and quality evaluation of carps cultured in river-cages and ponds
LIANG Shijie1,DING Ning1,FENG Chunsong1,YAN Youli2,LUO Yongkang1*
(1.College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China;2.Freshwater Fisheries Research Academy of Liaoning Province, Liaoyang 111000, China)
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to better understand and evaluate the nutritional quality and characteristics of carp cultured in river-cages and common ponds. The sensory evaluation, color, inosinicacid(IMP)content, nutrient composition(crude protein, crude fat, moisture, ash), amino acid composition, protein digestibility in vitro, relative molecular mass distribution after simulated digestion and cooking yield of carp meat from two differently cultured carp meat were analyzed and evaluated. The results showed that: The sensory evaluation discovered that the raw meat of river-cages cultured carp had a stronger clear flavor, lower earthy smell and fishlike smell, and the cooked meat had a better texture and taste compared to ponds cultured carp. The overall acceptability of both raw and cooked meat of river-cages cultured carp was higher. The brightness value L* and whiteness were significantly(P<0. 05)higher in river-cages cultured carp meat than those in ponds cultured carp meat. The content of IMP, which is the main fresh taste substance, was significantly(P<0. 05)higher in river-cages cultured carp meat than that in ponds cultured carp meat. The protein mass fraction of carp cultured in river-cages(18. 16%)was significantly higher than that of carp cultured in ponds(17. 43%)(P<0. 05), but there was no significant difference in moisture and ash contents. The total amino acid content, total essential amino acid content, total non-essential amino acid content, total umami amino acid content, the ratio of total essential amino acid to total amino acid content, and the ratio of total essential amino acid content to total non-essential amino acid content in river-cages cultured carp meat were significantly higher than those in ponds cultured carp meat(P<0. 05). In vitro simulated digestibility of protein was significantly(P<0. 05)higher in river-cages cultured carp meat(67. 13%)than in ponds cultured carp meat(55. 86%). The steaming yield of carp meat from ponds culture(78. 91%)was significantly(P<0. 05)lower than that of river-cages culture carp meat(83. 11%). In conclusion, compared with ponds cultured carp, river-cages cultured carp has more protein and umami substances, better smell, texture and taste, and is more conducive to human digestion and absorption.
Key words:  common carp  river-cages aquaculture  ponds aquaculture  nutrition quality