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基于农作物施肥量视角的区域尺度农田面源污染风险评价研究
杨世琦,颜鑫
0
(中国农业科学院 农业环境与可持续发展研究所, 北京 100081)
摘要:
为揭示区域尺度农田面源污染现状,以农作物及其化肥施用量研究对象,提出了农田面源污染风险等级(包括安全、微风险、低风险、中风险和高风险)与粮食作物当量概念,剖析了近20年主要作物与作物类型的农田面源污染风险及其变化过程,构建了区域尺度农田面源污染风险评价模型,在国家尺度、区域尺度与省域尺度开展了我国农田面源污染风险评价研究。结果表明:1)不同作物类型及作物农田面源污染风险有较大差异。粮食作物属氮低风险和磷微风险,油料作物属氮、磷微风险,棉花属氮高风险和磷低风险,麻类作物属氮高风险和磷微风险,糖料作物属氮、磷高风险,烟叶属氮安全与磷中风险,蔬菜属氮中风险和磷高风险,茶园属氮高风险和磷中风险,果园属氮、磷肥高风险;2)国家尺度农田氮、磷面源污染风险系数分别为1.14和1.45,属氮、磷低风险。区域尺度农田氮面源污染风险系数1.02~1.37,除华南属中风险外,其它区域均为属低风险;农田磷面源污染风险系数1.08~2.20,东北、华北、华中和华东属低风险、西南与西北属中风险,华南属高风险;3)省域尺度农田氮面源污染风险系数0.95~1.41,除广东等7省属中风险外,其它省均属低风险;农田磷面源污染风险系数1.16~2.99,除贵州等8省高风险、云南等4省中风险、以及黑龙江与吉林微风险外,其他17个省均属低风险。综上,作物类型及其种植面积对区域农田面源污染风险有重要影响,粮食作物比例越大,农田面源污染风险越低,如东北、华北、华东和华中地区;果园、蔬菜或茶园比例越大,农田面源污染风险越高,尤其是磷风险,如西南、西北和华南地区。
关键词:  施肥量  区域尺度  农田面源污染  风险
DOI:10.11841/j.issn.1007-4333.2023.02.13
投稿时间:2022-06-07
基金项目:“十三五”重点研发项目资助(2019BBF02007)
Risk assessment of non-point sources pollution in farmland based on main crop fertilizer application rate
YANG Shiqi,YAN Xin
(Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China)
Abstract:
To reveal the situatoin of control non-point sources pollution from farmland(NSPF)on regional scale, the main crops and their fertilizer application rates were taken as research objects. The risk grade of NSPF(includes safety, micro-risk, low-risk, mid-risk and high-risk)and conception of grain crop equivalent were put forward in the study. The NSPF risk of main crop and crop type and development process in recent twenty years were disclosed, and the assessment model of NSPF risk at regional scale was set up. Taking 2018 as an example, the assessment of NSPF risk at national, regional and provincial scales in China was carried out. The results are as fellows: 1)There are major differences in NSPF risk about different crops and crop types. Grain crops belong to low-risk of nitrogen non-point source pollution of farmland(N-NSPF)and micro-risk of phosphorus non-point source pollution of farmland(P-NSPF). Oil crops are in the micro-risk of N-NSPF and PNPF, while cotton is in high-risk of N-NSPF and low-risk of P-NSPF. Fiber crops are in high-risk of N-NSPF and micro-risk of P-NSPF and sugar crops are in high-risk of N-NSPF and P-NSPF. Tobacco is safe for N-NSPF and in mid-risk of P-NSPF, vegetables are in mid-risk of N-NSPF and high-risk of P-NSPF, tea plantation is in high-risk of N-NSPF and mid-risk of P-NSPF, and orchards are in high-risk of N-NSPF and P-NSPF. 2)The risk coefficient of nitrogen non-point source pollution from farmland(RCN)and risk coefficient of phosphorus non-point source pollution from farmland(RCP)are 1. 14 and 1. 45 at national scale, which are in low-risk of N-NSPF and P-NSPF. RCN is 1. 02 to 1. 37 at regional scale, other regions all are low-risk except South China. RCP is 1. 08 to 2. 20 at regional scale, Northeast, North, Central and East China are of low-risk, Southeast and Northwest China are of mid-risk, while South China is of high-risk. 3)At provincial scale, RCN ranges 0. 95 to 1. 41, other provinces all belong to low-risk, Guangdong and 7 other provinces belong to mid-risk. RCP ranges from 1. 16 to 2. 99, other 17 provinces all belong to low-risk, except Guizhou and 8 other provinces belong to high-risk, Yunnan and 4 other provinces mid-risk, Heilongjiang and Jilin micro-risk. Crop types and their planting area have important influence on risk of NSPF at regional scale. The more the planting area of grain crops, the less risk of NSPF, such as in Northeast, North, East and Central China. The more the planting area of orchard, vegetable or tea, the more risk of NSPF, especially the risk of phosphorus NSPF, such as Southeast, Northwest and South China.
Key words:  fertilizer application rate  regional scale  non-point source pollution from farmland  risk