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不同玉米品种吐丝后茎秆穗下各节间性状变化特征
赵雪1,李芳1,胡晗1,梁效贵1,申思1,2,王欣1,2,周顺利1,2*
0
(1.中国农业大学 农学院, 北京 100193;2.河北省低平原区农业技术创新中心, 河北 吴桥 061802)
摘要:
为探究不同玉米品种茎秆穗下各节间性状随节位和生育进程的变化规律,2018—2019年,以‘京农科 728’(机械粒收品种)、‘郑单 958’(普通品种)和‘先玉 335’(普通品种)为材料,分析从玉米吐丝至生理成熟后4周各节间形态、干物质含量、含水率和髓变白面积占比等指标。结果表明:随着节位上升,节间长呈“先增大后减小”的趋势,一般第6或第7节间最长;横截面积逐渐减小;节间单位体积干重呈“先减小后稍增大”的趋势,第5—7节间最小;基部第2或第3节间的含水率最大,向上节间含水率逐渐减小;节间髓变白面积占比逐渐增大。吐丝至生理成熟后4周,节间单位体积干重随生育进程的变化受环境、品种影响较大,2018年3个品种灌浆后期的节间单位体积干重大幅度增加,2019年仅‘京农科728’和‘郑单958’灌浆中后期增大,其他品种和时期变化不大。各节间的含水率在灌浆前期无显著变化,灌浆中期至生理成熟后4周不断减小,‘京农科728’节间含水率降低主要在灌浆中期和后期,‘郑单958’节间含水率降低主要在灌浆后期,‘先玉335’主要在灌浆后期和生理成熟后第2—4周。髓变白面积占比随生育进程推进逐渐增大,但其变化受环境影响大,2018年各时期无显著变化,2019年各时期增幅较大,特别是生理成熟后第2—4周,吐丝后第4周时‘郑单958’和‘先玉335’所有节间髓完全变白。综上,节间性状从基部向上逐渐变长、变细、单位体积干重变小、含水率减小、髓变白面积占比增大;随生育进程推进,单位体积干重变化受环境及品种特性影响,节间含水率灌浆中期或后期开始快速减小,髓变白面积占比变化受环境影响较大,生理成熟后第2—4周快速增大。
关键词:  玉米  穗下节间  形态  干物质含量  含水率  髓变白面积占比
DOI:10.11841/j.issn.1007-4333.2023.02.01
投稿时间:2022-04-12
基金项目:国家玉米产业技术体系(CARS-02-16)
Variation characteristics of the traits of stalk internodes below ear in different maize varieties after silking
ZHAO Xue1,LI Fang1,HU Han1,LIANG Xiaogui1,SHEN Si1,2,WANG Xin1,2,ZHOU Shunli1,2*
(1.College of Agronomy & Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China;2.Innovation Center of Agricultural Technology for Lowland Plain of Hebei, Wuqiao 061802, China)
Abstract:
In order to investigate the variation characteristics of the traits of internodes below ear with internode position(IP)and growth process of different maize varieties, ‘Jingnongke 728'(mechanical grain harvest variety), ‘Zhengdan 958'(common variety)and ‘Xianyu 335'(common variety)were used to measure internode morphologies, dry matter content, moisture content and proportion of white pith area from silking to 4 weeks after physiological maturity. The results showed that: With the increase of IP, the internode length increased first and then decreased, the 6th or 7th internode was the longest. The cross-sectional area decreased gradually following IP increasing. The dry weight per volume decreased first and then increased slightly following IP increasing, and the 5th to the 7th internode was the smallest. The moisture content of the 2nd or 3rd internode was the largest, and the moisture content of upper internodes decreased gradually. The proportion of white pith area increased gradually following IP increasing. From silking to 4 weeks after physiological maturity, the variation of dry weight per volume of internodes in the progress of growth were greatly influenced by environments and varietys. The dry weight per volume of internodes of the three varieties in 2018 increased dramatically in the late stage of grain filling. In 2019, only the data of ‘Jingnongke 728' and ‘Zhengdan 958' increased in the middle and late stages of grain filling, the data of other varieties and stages changed little. The moisture content of internodes changed little in the early stage of grain filling, then decreased from middle stage to 4 weeks after physiological maturity: The moisture content of ‘Jingnongke 728' decreased mainly in the middle and late stages of grain filling, that of ‘Zhengdan 958' was mainly in the late stage of grain filling, and that of ‘Xianyu 335' was mainly in the late stage of grain filling and the 2-4 weeks after physiological maturity. The proportion of white pith area increased gradually with growth progress, but it varied greatly in different years: It changed little in 2018 but increased significantly in 2019, especially during the 2-4 weeks after physiological maturity; the pith of all internodes of ‘Zhengdan 985' and ‘Xianyu 335' became completely white on the 4th week after physiological maturity. In conclusion, with the increase of IP the internode became longer and thinner, the dry weight per volume became smaller, the moisture content became smaller and the proportion of white pith area became larger upward. With the progress of growth, the variation of dry weight per volume of internodes were affected by environments and varietys, the moisture content decreased rapidly from the middle stage of grain filling, the proportion of white pith area was affected by environment, it increased rapidly from the 2nd to the 4th week after physiological maturity.
Key words:  maize  internodes below ear  morphology  dry matter content  moisture content  proportion of white pith area